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The difference between high-sulfur CPC and low-sulfur GPC graphite


Low sulfur graphite is a product produced from petroleum coke that is processed in high temperature furnaces. This product is used in the steel industry and has become a good substitute for graphite waste. Persulfur graphite is actually crude petroleum coke that is produced at a temperature of about 1300 degrees Celsius. Persulfur graphite, which is also called calcined coke, is used in the aluminum industry, foundry, in factories producing carbon products, and as a conductive backing in the location of electrodes. Knowing the difference between high-sulfur and low-sulfur graphite helps to better understand the production process, benefits and applications of these two products.


What is persulfur graphite or CPC?


Persulphur furnace is produced by heating petroleum coke in a rotary furnace. The use of a rotary kiln in the production of this product is to remove volatile substances, moisture, increase physical resistance, increase structural density and finally increase the electrical conductivity of this product. The temperature required for baking calcined coke is between 1250 and 1300 degrees Celsius. Together, these things have made persulfur graphite a hard material, with a suitable density and low hydrogen, which has a very good electrical conductivity

Undoubtedly, calcined coke is considered the best material for making anodes used in the aluminum industry. The structure of this product is sponge. The proper porosity of the spongy structure allows the glue to penetrate between the coked particles and makes it easier to conduct the electric current from the melters to the melting and regeneration vessel. In the aluminum industry, no suitable commercial substitute for persulfur graphite has been found.



Persulphur graphite production process

First, raw petroleum coke or green coke is placed in a rotary kiln with a temperature of 1300 degrees Celsius. The high temperature helps to remove moisture, extract other hydrocarbons, improve the crystalline structure of the coke to create a product with good density and electrical conductivity. After that, the graphite temperature is reduced to 200 degrees Celsius. This temperature is suitable for storing calcined coke in silos, ship tanks, etc. There are different methods to produce CPC, which are: vertical shaft technology, rotary kiln, rotary bush kiln. In each of these methods, three basic changes are made to produce persulfur graphite. Drying, removing excess hydrocarbons and finally increasing density are the three changes made in CPCs.


Types of categories and effective factors in CPC quality

The diverse application of persulfur graphites provides a suitable substrate for the production of various types of CPCs. Granulation and analysis of persulfur graphites are different. This product is produced in three types of persulfur graphite, calcined coke and calcined petroleum coke based on the needs of the consumer. The main factors that create diversity in this functional product are:

  • Amount of available carbon or F. C
  • Ash or Ash
  • Amount of sulfur
  • Volatile substances in graphite
  • Product moisture
  • Grading



Application of CPC or persulfur graphite


The difference between high-sulfur and low-sulfur graphite is not limited to the temperature required for their processing. These two products also have fundamental differences in terms of application. The main application of CPCs in the aluminum industry is to produce carbon anodes. For other applications of persulfur graphites, these can be mentioned: making graphite electrodes for arc furnaces, making titanium dioxide, making polycarbonate plastics, producing carbon refractory bricks for blast furnaces, and cathodic protection of pipelines.



What is low sulfur graphite or GPC?


This product is created by placing high purity petroleum coke in a graphite furnace. The temperature of this sphere is about 3000 degrees Celsius. To produce petroleum coke, the temperature must enter from the amorphous layered structure into the hexagonal layer of the carbon crystal. This process is known as graphitization. Petroleum coke that is modified through this process is also called low sulfur graphite or graphite petroleum coke.


The characteristics of GPC include high carbon content, very low sulfur and low ash. The porosity of this petroleum coke is much less compared to CPC. This product can be used as carbon 10 or carbon additive in the industries of quality fulan production, cast iron production and alloy coatings that require little sulfur. The high carbon of GPC provides the conditions for using this product as an additive in the rubber and plastic industries, and it is interesting to know that low sulfur graphite is a very valuable product that is used in the production of lubricants, sealants, combined brakes, electric brushes and It has many other uses.



Classification of GPC types


To classify low-sulfur graphites, you must pay attention to various factors. The most important parameters for GPC classification are: granulation type, carbon content, purification method and sulfur percentage. In a general category, this product can be divided into the following types:

  • Graphite GPC
  • Low sulfur graphite
  • Petroleum coke graphia
  • Coke petroleum graphitization


Key features of low sulfur graphites


In order to simplify the understanding of the difference between high-sulfur and low-sulfur graphite, it is necessary to mention the main characteristics of GPC. Undoubtedly, the key feature of low sulfur graphite is its high carbonization power. The low percentage of sulfur in GPC increases its carbonization power by more than 90%. Another unique feature that cannot be overlooked is the absence of harmful elements in GPC. The carbon and nitrogen content of this product is very low, but its carbon percentage is in good condition. To express the size of the features of this product, the following should be mentioned:

  • Low resistance
  • Low ash
  • Good absorption

Graphitization temperature between 2500 and 3500 degrees Celsius


Advantages of using GPC


  • Management and control of the stability of raw materials from mineral resources
  • Very high purity
  • desirable performance
  • Increasing graphitizing properties in cast iron production industries
  • Increasing the germination power of molten iron graphite crystals and improving their uniform distribution
  • Very favorable classification
  • Reduce costs
  • Reducing iron consumption in manufacturing industries




Various applications of low sulfur graphite


This functional product is used as a carbon agent in various industries. Undoubtedly, foundry, cast iron and metallurgy industries are the main applications of GPC. This product is used in the construction of high-temperature crucibles in the smelting industry, as lubricants in the mechanical industry, electrode production, and as a pencil lead. Of course, in some cases, the application of high-sulfur and low-sulfur graphites is similar. For example, GPC and CPC can be used in rubber and plastic manufacturing industries.


You should know that the use of this important product is not limited to the above. Moreover, GPC is used as a coating and refractory material in the metallurgy industry, industries for the production of probiotic stabilizers, carbon brush production in the electrical industry, electrode production in the battery industry, and catalyst in the production of various chemical fertilizers.


GPC production process


This product is produced from crude oil through two processes. First, the oil is distilled into different products. Light components such as gasoline vapor, LPG and kerosene will be separated. Then, the process of processing the heavy parts begins using a coker. The remaining oil is heated again at a high temperature. This method helps to remove other light materials. The substance that remains after high heat is called petroleum coke.

In the production of GPC, high-quality petroleum coke is used as a raw material. After refining graphitization at high temperature, to produce low sulfur graphites, the temperature of the furnace must be increased to 3000 degrees Celsius. This temperature helps the irregular arrangement of carbon molecules in petroleum coke to become a uniform and hexagonal arrangement.



Guide to buying and price of high-sulfur and low-sulfur graphite


As we mentioned, CPC and GPC are two main ingredients in different industries. Supplying high-quality raw materials at reasonable prices is the main concern of industries. So checking the price and providing practical tips for buying high-quality raw materials is very helpful. The price may be one of the determining parts of the difference between high-sulfur and low-sulfur graphite. But, the important thing is that the price of these two functional products depends on various factors. The percentage of purity, the amount of volatile substances, the type of granulation and the country of graphite production are the most important factors in determining the final price of these two products


The first-grade Chinese low-sulfur graphite with 1-5 mm grain size has a higher price compared to Turkmet or Russian graphite. But in recent years, domestic producers have started to produce various types of high-sulfur and low-sulfur graphites to reduce the need of industries to import. To choose a high-quality product, a qualitative analysis step must be performed. After this step, check the price range of products with similar quality analysis from different brands. This method helps to choose a high-quality product with a reasonable price.